Emile Durkheim and the Growth of Functionalism

Durkheim and Functionalism Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) is certainly the most important sociological forerunner of modern functionalism. Comte’s influence on Durkheim and, in turn, Durkheim’s impact on Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowski were of crucial importance to its development. Parsons said that Durkheim was one of his most important intellectual role models. Similarly, Robert Merton states that Durkheim …

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Functionalism and its Early Roots

What is Functionalism? According to “A Modern Dictionary of Sociology”, functionalism is defined as, The analysis of social and cultural phenomena in terms of the functions they perform in a sociocultural system. In functionalism, society is conceived of as a system of interrelated parts in which no part can be understood in isolation from the …

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Major Perspectives in Sociology

Perspectives in Sociology There is no clearly identifiable date when sociological theory began. However, the mid-to-late 1800s marks the period when social thought turned to what we today call sociology. There are currently three major theoretical paradigms in sociology: the structural-functionalist paradigm, the social conflict paradigm, and the symbolic-interactionist paradigm (Babbie 1994). No one of …

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Theories of Social Stratification

Sociologists and other social theorists use the concept of social stratification to describe inequalities that exist between individuals and groups within human societies. Often, we think of stratification in terms of assets or property, but it can also occur because of other attributes, such as gender, age, religious affiliation or military rank. Individuals and groups …

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The Sociological Imagination

Among American sociologists, C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) is the best known (for Sociological Imagination) recent theorist whose work combines a conflict perspective with a strong critique of the social order. Mills was born and raised in Texas; he never left the state until he was in his twenties, when he won a research fellowship to …

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Critical Theory and Frankfurt School

Critical Theory and Frankfurt School: Although all the theorists discussed in this section provide a critique of contemporary society, the term critical theory is also associated specifically with the theorists of the Frankfurt School. The work of the older Frankfurt theorists only became well-known among English-speaking sociologists in the 1960s. However, Jurgen Habermas, the most …

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List of Sociology Journals in SCOPUS (December 2022)

List of Sociology and Political Science Journals in SCOPUS Source Title Publisher Administrative Science Quarterly Cornell University Press Journal of Service Research SAGE Leadership Quarterly Elsevier Social Issues and Policy Review Wiley-Blackwell Government InformationQuarterly Elsevier New Media and Society SAGE American Sociological Review SAGE Cambridge Journal of Regions,Economy and Society Oxford University Press Journal of …

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Georg Simmel and Conflict Theory: A new thread of conflict Theory

Georg Simmel (1858-1918) Among the great early sociologists, Simmel was the most interested in identifying universal patterns in human behavior. Whereas Marx and Weber wanted to understand what made a particular society operate, Simmel concentrated on developing what is almost a mathematics of society: a collection of statements about human relationships and social behavior that …

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Elite Theory: A Contemporary Alternative of Conflict Theory

Elite Theory Although the major elements of conflict theory were set out by Marx and Weber, a number of other theorists developed comparable ideas that have also had a significant impact on modern analysts. The most important are the elite theorists (namely Pareto, Mosca, and Michels), Thorstein Veblen, and Joseph Schumpeter. The most prominent elite …

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Max Weber and Conflict Theory: Tracing the Origin Conflict Theory

Max Weber and Conflict Theory Max Weber was born into a prominent bourgeois German family. His father was an important member of the National Liberal Party, with a seat in the Reichstag (Parliament); his mother came from a wealthy but also intensely religious and cultured background. There was considerable tension in his parents’ marriage. As …

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Neofunctionalism: New Addition in Functionalism or against it?

What is Neofunctionalism? Neofunctionalism is a recent theoretical development that emerged in the mid-1980s, both in the United States and in Germany. In 1984, the American Sociological Association devoted two sessions to a conference on neofunctionalism at its annual meeting, where most of the papers presented were reappraisals and reconsiderations of the empirical implications of …

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Impact of Globalization on Agriculture

Impact of Globalization on Agriculture:
Unsustainable agricultural practices are increasing like the excessive use of fertilizers.

It is the big MNCs and private players who are actually getting benefitted from agriculture in the modern globalized world and not the actual tiller of the land or the farmer.

What is socialisation? Conceptualization and Agencies of socialisation

Meaning •What is socialisation? Socialisation is an important process for the functioning and continuation of society. Different societies have different ways and methods to train their new born members so that they are able to develop their own personalities. This training of and building the personality of the child is called socialisation. •Socialisation is a …

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Concept of State and its Attributes

The modern nation-state, with a centralized structure and elaborate bureaucracy, is a relatively recent human innovation (Bottomore 1979) having been in existence for only about 6,000 years (Berberoglu 1990). Prior to the rise of the state, authority was determined by kinship relations or religious rituals with no specific group charged with decision-making responsibility (Bottomore 1979). …

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Types of Authority and Legitimacy – Weber

Authority implies legitimacy or legitimate use of power. According to Weber, there are three systems of legitimation, each with its corresponding norms, which justify the power to command. It is these systems of legitimation which are designated as the followingtypes of authority. (i) Traditional authority This system of legitimation flows from traditional action. In other …

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System of Land Ownership

Systems of Land Ownership The system of land ownership regulates the relationship of the people to the land, specifically the power of disposition over land and the right to use the land. As it is practically impossible, on the one hand, to increase the amount of land while, on the other hand, it is the …

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Herbert Marcuse: One-Dimensional Man (1964) and Advanced Industrial Society

Introduction to Herbert Marcuse Herbert Marcuse was a German philosopher closely associated with the Frankfurt school (Radical intellectuals) Marcuse was more of a Marxist wing of the school. First published in 1964, the book was one of the most important works of that time and was recognized as a significant critical diagnosis of the present …

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Talcott Parsons: The Social System, and General Action Theory (1952)

Introduction Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) was a prominent American Sociologist of twentieth century. He served on the faculty of Harvard University from 1921 to 1973. Parsons made a rapid academic progress. He was made chairman of the Harvard Sociology department in 1944; in 1946, he set up and chaired the innovative department of Social relations; in …

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Discourse, Power and Knowledge – By Michel Foucault (2022)

The Introduction (The Archaeology of Knowledge) In France, a country that awards its intellectuals the status other countries give to their rockstars, Michel Foucault (1926–1984) was part of a glittering generation of thinkers. One of the great intellectual heroes of twentieth century, Foucault was a man whose passion and reason were at the service of …

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Fundamental Duties in the Consitution of India

The original constitution contained only the fundamental rights and not the fundamental duties. In other words, the framers of the Constitution did not feel it necessary to incorporate the fundamental duties of the citizens in the Constitution.

System Analysis: An Approach in Political Theory (2022)

System Analysis in Political Science Systems analysis was influenced by the Austrian Canadian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy and the American sociologist Talcott Parsons. So, it is a variant of structural functionalism used in political science. It is a broad theory about how the various parts and levels of a political system interact with each other. The central or the …

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Origin and Development of Sociology

In origin and development of Sociology, two factors played important role. 1) Intellectual Forces (contributions of thinkers; 2) Social Forces (Social conditions prevalent in society).

What is Social Institution? Basic concepts in Sociology (updated 2022)

The social institution is a system of beliefs, norms, values, positions and activities that develop around a basic societal need or generally, institutions are patterns of norms that define behaviour in social relationships. Institutions are the pre-defined patterns of conduct established by habitualised human actions.

Sources of the Constitution of India

Sources of the Constitution of India:
Fundamental Rights – US;
DPSP – Ireland;
Fundamental Duties – USSR;
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity – France;
and So On…